Board Certified


Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD) occurs when two eyes are not working together as a team. One eye is misaligned between the line of sight with the other eye. When the amount of misalignment is large, 复视: may happen. Whereas, when the amount of misalignment is small, a single image is maintained. Vertical heterophoria (VH) may occur due to the lack of coordination between two eyes. If this condition is left untreated, the patient may have vertical double vision.


  • Pain symptoms: Headache, sinus, and eye pain.
  • 头部倾斜:可能导致颈部或背部疼痛。头部长期倾斜可导致单边皱眉脸部不对称。
  • 前庭症状:晕眩、不平衡、晕车、深度感知较差、协调性不好、走路时偏向一侧
  • 阅读症状:阅读时容易感到疲惫和难以专注、跳行及忘记读到哪里、字体出现叠影
  • Routine visual symptoms: Eye tiredness, nighttime blindness, blurry vision, the difficulty for near tasks       
  • 双眼视觉症状:复视/叠影、阅读时遮盖一只眼睛、光线敏感
  • Physiological symptoms: Anxiety easily in a crowded place or in a large space

What's the next step?


A comprehensive vision exam is recommended for all children (6-18 years) before they start school and every year while they are in school, which cover evaluation of external and internal eye health, color vision and refraction for optical prescription, and screening visual analysis of the functional visual abilities. However, when a child struggles with reading and learning or is not achieving his or her potential, a 眼科视觉神经发展功能检验 is needed.

In addition, if you have a younger child (toddler to 5 years) who has an eye turn ((斜视)) or lazy eye (Amblyopia) you should schedule a Neuro-Developmental Vision Evaluation. A Neuro-Developmental Vision Evaluation is also necessary for adults who struggle with reading or who have had a head injury of some kind. When children have special needs, are on the Autism Spectrum, or have other developmental delays a Neuro-Developmental Vision Evaluation is strongly recommended.

为何眼科视觉神经发展功能检验(NDVE)对阅读与学习如此重要? 我们所提供的眼科视觉神经发展功能检验,除了视力检验(20/20),还包括对阅读和学习的非常重要之视觉技能,如:


  • 视线的聚(看近)与散(看远)都需要双眼互相合作。当双眼无法合作时,不仅影响外观(斜视/斗鸡眼),也会影响深度感知(立体视觉),而无法分辨目标是远或近,且空间定位较差。


  • 当望向远处时,视觉是否清晰?快速自动的聚焦调整对学习、阅读、书写、运动等活动,极为重要。所以这方面的障碍会引起视觉疲惫、阅读理解能力下降和避免近距离用眼等行为。


  • 引言:“人对外部世界的观察主要是通过眼睛注视点的不断移动来实现的” 。日常生活中,视线不可能永久地固定在同一目标。眼球总是在 “扫视,注视,再扫视,再注视” 的过程中不断移动,这需要强大的眼球运动能力。此外,眼球运动有助于运动员的视线追踪、手眼协调、以及视觉反应时间。


The Neuro-Developmental Vision Evaluation (NDVE) is much more in-depth than a regular eye exam. It takes approximately 1 to 2 hours and is given by our vision specialist & therapist on a one-to-one basis with the patient. The purpose of this testing is to determine how the visual system processes information, how vision integrates with the other sense modalities, and to determine whether the vision is supporting or interfering with performance to its full potential. Parents are asked to wait in the reception area during this testing. At the completion of this testing, scores will be tabulated and then presented at a consultation (scheduled at a different time) with our Behavioral and Developmental Optometrist, the patient, and/or the parents. Treatment options will be discussed.



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