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Binocular Vision Dysfunction (BVD) occurs when two eyes are not working together as a team. One eye is misaligned between the line of sight with the other eye. When the amount of misalignment is large, 複視: may happen. Whereas, when the amount of misalignment is small, a single image is maintained. Vertical heterophoria (VH) may occur due to the lack of coordination between two eyes. If this condition is left untreated, the patient may have vertical double vision.


  • Pain symptoms: Headache, sinus, and eye pain.
  • 頭部傾斜:可能導致頸部或背部疼痛。頭部長期傾斜可導致單邊皺眉臉部不對稱。
  • 前庭症狀:暈眩、不平衡、暈車、深度感知較差、協調性不好、走路時偏向一側
  • 閱讀症狀:閱讀時容易感到疲憊和難以專注、跳行及忘記讀到哪裡、字體出現疊影
  • Routine visual symptoms: Eye tiredness, nighttime blindness, blurry vision, the difficulty for near tasks       
  • 雙眼視覺症狀:複視/疊影、閱讀時遮蓋一隻眼睛、光線敏感
  • Physiological symptoms: Anxiety easily in a crowded place or in a large space

What's the next step?


A comprehensive vision exam is recommended for all children (6-18 years) before they start school and every year while they are in school, which cover evaluation of external and internal eye health, color vision and refraction for optical prescription, and screening visual analysis of the functional visual abilities. However, when a child struggles with reading and learning or is not achieving his or her potential, a 眼科視覺神經發展功能檢驗 is needed.

In addition, if you have a younger child (toddler to 5 years) who has an eye turn ((斜視)) or lazy eye (Amblyopia) you should schedule a Neuro-Developmental Vision Evaluation. A Neuro-Developmental Vision Evaluation is also necessary for adults who struggle with reading or who have had a head injury of some kind. When children have special needs, are on the Autism Spectrum, or have other developmental delays a Neuro-Developmental Vision Evaluation is strongly recommended.



  • 视線的聚(看近)與散(看遠)都需要雙眼互相合作。當雙眼無法合作時,不僅影響外觀(斜視/鬥雞眼),也會影響深度感知(立體視覺),而無法分辨目標是遠或近,且空間定位較差。


  • 當望向遠處時,視覺是否清晰?快速自動的聚焦調整對學習、閱讀、書寫、運動等活動,極為重要。所以這方面的障礙會引起視覺疲憊、閱讀理解能力下降和避免近距離用眼等行為。


  • 引言:“人對外部世界的觀察主要是通過眼睛注視點的不斷移動來實現的” 。日常生活中,視線不可能永久地固定在同一目標。眼球總是在 “掃視,注視,再掃視,再注視” 的過程中不斷移動,這需要強大的眼球運動能力。此外,眼球運動有助於運動員的視線追踪、手眼協調、以及視覺反應時間。


The Neuro-Developmental Vision Evaluation (NDVE) is much more in-depth than a regular eye exam. It takes approximately 1 to 2 hours and is given by our vision specialist & therapist on a one-to-one basis with the patient. The purpose of this testing is to determine how the visual system processes information, how vision integrates with the other sense modalities, and to determine whether the vision is supporting or interfering with performance to its full potential. Parents are asked to wait in the reception area during this testing. At the completion of this testing, scores will be tabulated and then presented at a consultation (scheduled at a different time) with our Behavioral and Developmental Optometrist, the patient, and/or the parents. Treatment options will be discussed.



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